System of Education
- Higher Education: After graduating from high school, students can enroll in higher education, which is compatible with the Bologna three-cycle system.
- Faculty (College): A division conducting higher education, scholarly research and publication. Various departments and programs may be connected to it. Students earn a bachelor’s degree at the end of an educational program that lasts for at least four years.
- 4-year School: An institution of higher education which is mainly concerned with providing instruction for a specific profession. It lasts for eight semesters.
- Conservatory: An institution of higher education in which artists are trained for music and the performing arts. It lasts for eight semesters.
- Post-Secondary Vocational School: An institution of higher education that is aimed at training human capacity in specific professions and provides instruction lasting four semesters.
- Research and Application Center: An institution of higher education carrying out research and applied studies to meet the applied study needs of various areas and to provide preparatory and support activities for various professional areas, with the aim of supporting education in institutions of higher education.
Associate degree (short cycle):
Awarded on completion of a two-year study program. The associate degree programs are offered by universities and foundation postsecondary vocational schools. Some distance education programs are also available. The associate degree programs may require a period of on-the-job training.
Master’s degree program (2nd cycle):
Two-year program leading to the Master of Arts (MA) or Master of Sciences (MS). There are two kinds of master’s programs, with or without a thesis. The Master’s with thesis program is a two-year program generally consisting courses with a minimum of 120 ECTS followed by submission of a thesis. Non-thesis programs are to be completed in one or one and a half years and call for the completion of graduate courses of a minimum 90 credits and a term project.
Specialization in Medicine Programs:
They are equivalent to doctoral degree programs and are carried out in the faculties of medicine, university hospitals and research and training hospitals. For the specialization in medicine, there is a competitive selection examination in various branches of medicine for those graduating from the faculties of medicine. Specialist candidates are required to submit a dissertation and defend it before an examining committee.
Bachelor’s degree (1st cycle):
Awarded after the completion of a four-year course and 240 ECTS of study. The duration of study for dentistry, veterinary medicine and pharmacy is five years and that of medicine is six years. The qualifications in these four fields are the equivalent of a master’s degree.
Doctoral degree program (3rd cycle):
Usually an eight-semester program leading to the PhD degree. It consists of courses, with 180-240 ECTS, a proficiency exam, a dissertation proposal, a dissertation and its oral defense. After successful completion of the course work and the proficiency exam, students must submit the dissertation and defend it orally before an examining committee.
Proficiency in Art:
It is at least a six-semester post-master’s program in the visual and performing art branches making it equivalent to a Doctorate. It requires the presentation of an original work of art or (in music and the performing arts) a superior, creative performance.